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电机故障
在家用电器设备中,如电扇、电冰箱、洗衣机、抽油烟机、吸尘器等,其工作动力均采用单相交流电动机。这种电动机结构较简单,因此有些常见故障可在业余条件下进行修复。   1.电动机通电后不启动   该故障除了电源回路、电机绕组不良外,大多是电机的启动电路异常。电扇、排风扇、洗衣机等电机一般采用电容器启动运转;而电冰箱、冷柜等的电机多采用电阻分相启动运转,一旦启动电路中的电容器或分相电阻损坏,电机就不能正常运转,检修时应先排除启动电路故障后再查电机故障。   若启动电路正常,则可能是电动机内部绕组局部短路或断路,可用万用表R×1挡测各绕组电阻值来判断。   如电冰箱压缩机电机,正常情况下启动绕组电阻值约为23Ω,运行绕组电阻值为10Ω左右,起动和运行串接绕组正常阻值应为两者之和。   2.电动机转速慢而无力   电动机在通电后转速慢而无力时,对于电容启动式电机大多为电容器容量不足、漏电严重或电源电压过低;此外鼠笼转子铝条部分如果有严重的缺损及断条情况,特别是洗衣机电机经常启动和正反交替运转,转子铝条较大的感应电流易使转子铝条断裂,也导致运转慢而无力。   当发现铝条有裂缝时,可用手电钻在裂缝间钻一个小孔,用相应的铝丝条嵌入孔内,然后将其敲平铆死,最后用钢锉和砂纸打磨平整光滑即可。若铝条断裂面较大时,有条件的可采用铝丝气焊的方法加以修补。   3.电动机外壳带电   一般要求电机泄漏电流不应大于0.8mA,以保证人身安全。   电动机外壳漏电的主要原因有电机内某引出线绝缘破损并碰触壳体;电机绕组局部烧毁引起定子与外壳间漏电。较多见的是长期处于高湿环境,导致电机受潮绝缘降低而使机壳带电。此时,可用摇表测量电机各绕组与机壳间的绝缘电阻值,若在2MΩ以下,则说明电机已受潮严重,应将电机定子绕组进行烘烤去潮处理。   4.电动机运转时温升加剧   各类家用单相电动机在正常工作状态下,其电机壳体表面温度一般比环境温度高20℃左右,最高温升不应高于70℃。如果电机工作几分钟后出现壳体表面温度剧升,且机内散发焦油味甚至冒烟,则为电机过热故障。   电机过热温升的原因,主要有电机自身质量问题;电机长期处于超负荷运行状态(传动机构故障引起电机负荷大);电机散热条件差;电机绕组局部短路等。其中较常见的是绕组匝间 短路,可拆开机壳检查绕组。如果线包无烧毁现象,可将定子重新进行浸漆绝缘处理,然后烘干。若线包有局部烧毁,那只有更换绕组线包。   5.电动机运行噪声大   电机工作噪声大,一般有两种原因,一是机械噪声,主要是电机轴承磨损和缺油,产生硬摩擦噪声。对此可清洗后加入润滑脂减少噪声。当转子轴与轴承松动或端盖松动时,也会使电机在旋转时产生轴向窜动发出噪声。也有一些装配质量差的电机,轴承室不同心,电机径向间隙不均匀等均会产生异常噪声。对此,只要拆下外盖和后内盖,取出转子和定子座,重新敲铆内盖的中心轴即可应急修复。   另外,一些罩极式电机的短路环松动或铁心松动而产生电磁噪声,应采取夹紧措施。】

In home appliances, such as electric fan, refrigerator, washing machine, smoke lampblack machine, vacuum cleaner, its work force are used for single-phase AC motor. The motor has the advantages of simple structure, so some common faults in the amateur conditions for repair. The 1 motor is energized after starting the fault in addition to the power circuit, the motor winding side, mostly the motor starting circuit abnormalities. Fan, fan motor, washing machine generally adopts capacitor start running; and refrigerators, refrigerator and other motor uses the resistor split-phase starting operation, once the starting circuit of capacitor split-phase motor or resistor is damaged, it can not be the normal operation, maintenance should be ruled out first starting circuit fault check motor fault. If the starting circuit is normal, may be internal motor winding local short circuit or open circuit, available multimeter R x 1 retaining measure each winding resistance values. Such as the refrigerator compressor motor, normally starting winding resistance of about 23 ohms, running winding resistance is 10 ohms, start-up and operation of cascaded winding resistance should be for both normal and. 2 motor speed slow and weak motor in power after the speed is slow and weak, for a capacitor start motor is mostly capacitor capacity is insufficient, leakage is serious or low voltage; in addition the squirrel-cage rotor aluminium strip part if there are serious defect and fault conditions, especially the washing machine motor often start and positive alternate operation, rotor bar of large induction current is easy to make the rotor bar breaking, also leads to run slow and feeble. When the aluminum cracks, available in the crack drill to drill a small hole, with the corresponding aluminum wire is embedded into the hole, and then the riveting die out, finally the files and sanded smooth. If the aluminum of the fracture surface is larger, conditional can adopt aluminum wire welding method to repair. 3 motor shell charged General requirements of the electrical leakage current shall be not more than 0.8mA, in order to ensure the safety of the people. Motor casing leakage is the main reason for the motor in a lead-out wire insulation damage and touch the shell; the motor windings partial burning caused by stator and the casing leakage. More common is a long time high humidity environment, causes the motor insulation reduction and the shell charged damp. At this time, can shake table measuring the windings and the casing insulation resistance value, if the 2M ohm, the motor has been affected with damp is serious, should be the motor stator winding for baking to wet processing. The 4 running motor temperature rise intensified in various types of household single-phase motor under normal working condition, the motor casing surface temperature is generally higher than ambient temperature around 20 degrees, the highest temperature rises shall not be higher than 70 DEG c.. If the motor work for a few minutes after casing surface temperature drama rise, and the machine are circulated within the tar taste even smoke, for motor overheat fault. Motor overheat temperature rise the reason, basically have the motor itself quality problems; the motor is overloaded ( transmission mechanism caused by fault of motor load); the heat dissipation conditions of the motor; the motor windings partial short circuit. One of the more common is the winding inter-turn short circuit, detachable boot shell checking winding. If the line package without burning phenomenon, the stator to dipping insulation treatment, and then drying. If the line with local burned, the only change winding line. The 5 running noise of motor motor working noise, generally there are two reasons, one is the mechanical noise, mainly motor bearing wear and short of oil, produce hard friction noise. This can be cleaned after adding grease to reduce noise. When the rotor shaft and bearing looseness or loosening of the end cap, also can make the motor rotates in axial float noise. There are also some assembly the poor quality of the motor, the bearing chamber is concentric, motor radial clearance are not even so will generate abnormal noise. In this regard, as long as the remove outer cover and rear cover, a rotor and a stator seat removed, to knock the riveting inner cover shaft can emergency repair center. In addition, a number of shaded pole motor short circuit loop loose or core loose to generate electromagnetic noise, clamping measures should be taken. ]

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